TYPES OF COFFEE
Coffea robusta and Coffea arabica
Coffee is prepared as a blend of beans from various types of coffee plants. We most frequently encounter beans from Coffea robusta and Coffea arabica (the less popular Coffea excelsa and Coffea liberica only appear infrequently on the market). Only two basic types, arabica and robusta, are used to prepare coffee in these latitudes. Arabica (approx. 70% of global production) is a coffee with a smaller amount of caffeine and wide range of delicate flavours and aromas. It is cultivated at greater heights above sea level (900–2800m), often in volcanic soil or forests (e.g. the Ethiopian coffee Harar or Wild Forest). The robusta beans are larger and during roasting and actual preparation they are very sensitive to temperature. Robusta is the less demanding variety of coffee plant. Its share of global production is about 25%. The biggest producers are Brazil, Vietnam, Columbia and Indonesia. The beans are smaller, the coffee has an earthier, stronger flavour. It contains approximately twice as much caffeine as arabica. After oil, coffee is the most-sold commodity in the world.